1.0 Introduction 简介
Formal English phonetics teaching began in the late 19th century, although phonetics teaching has not been paid as much attention as reading, writing and vocabulary teaching by scholars and educators (Jenkins, 2002) , in the past more than a century, due to the impact by different language schools and language teaching ideas, English phonetics teaching has also undergone great changes and progress, English phonetics teaching models change with the development of people's understanding of phonetics education and social development, a lot of controversy on English phonetics teaching emerge. One of the most important controversy is the controversy between traditional phonetic teaching model and localized phonetic teaching model. Traditional phonetic teaching model emphasizes that the teaching contents, standards and applications should follow the British and American standards (Varonis and Gass, 1982; Wong, 1987). While localized model believes that English phonetics teaching should change the practice of adhering to the British English or American standards (Jenkins, 2002), the outer circle countries should pay attention to localized phonetic teaching model. The debate between the two theories is still widespread today. Different theories determine the difference between phonetic teaching, choice of teaching materials, teacher employment and phonetic achievement assessment. Therefore, to understand the content and background of this argument and to develop appropriate phonetic teaching strategy plays a very important role in determining whether the phonetic teaching of each country can achieve the intended teaching goals. This essay first reviews the above two theories, then it provides a critical analysis on the two theories to understand their strengths and weaknesses, and finally it makes recommendations on future English phonetic teaching and practice.
2.0 Traditional phonetic teaching model 传统语音教学模式
Three concentric circle theories are put forward according to the way of communication of world English, the way of acquisition and the functional field in cross-cultural communication. The inner circle countries take English as their native language, and the outer circle countries take English as the official or second language, and the extended circle take English as a foreign language (Kachru, 1977).
Traditional model of phonetic teaching refers to that in phonetic teaching process, the teaching, examination and application are implemented completely in accordance with the standards of the United Kingdom or the United States. Over the years this teaching model has been selected as a phonetic teaching model by the majority of the outer circle countries (Varonis and Gass, 1982), this model is based on the assumption that the outer circle of different countries and regions have almost the same purpose of learning English and their context, function of using English are roughly similar, so the English phonetic teaching in the countries should follow the same standard model, and this standard model take the teaching model from the United Kingdom or the United States as a standard, this model denies the existence of English phonetic variants (Varonis and Gass, 1982). This model has been used in many countries for many years, the reason first lies in that the model has an international reputation and legal status, the supporting grammar teaching materials, dictionaries, teaching tools have been compiled, the original textbooks are rich, the international evaluation system is perfect (Wong, 1987). Second, English language teaching institutions of the inner countries often send native language teachers to other countries in the world to provide English courses and skills training, and they can give the outer circle countries relatively scientific and rigorous English phonetic teaching guidance and suggestions (Varonis and Gass, 1982). Third, in order to abide by the standards, to provide native students with internationally recognized "best" language education, many national education authorities tend to choose the model (Varonis and Gass, 1982).
3.0 Localized phonetic teaching model 本土化语音教学模式
Kachru (1977) pointed out that there is a big difference in the language environment and purpose of English teaching between different countries, especially the outer circle countries. In school education, it should be based on specific language communication environment to adjust the English phonetic teaching model and standards. For example, the written English language in Singapore should not be too far from the standard of British English, but the spoken language and the pronunciation is a sign of Singaporean national cultural identity, it is not necessary to fully adhere to the British standard in phonetic teaching. He believed that Singapore's phonetic teaching model can use acrolect teaching as a phonetic teaching model. Kachru's (1977) approach is suitable for English teaching in outer circle countries. It advocates the practice of English phonetic teaching in outer circle countries that it should break through traditional textbooks and the practice of adhering to British English or American phonetic standards. The outer circle countries should pay attention to the localization model of phonetic teaching.
Jenkins (2002) analyzed the communication failure and verbal adaptation of non-native speakers in the social context to establish a set of core pronunciation features called lingua franca core. The characteristics of the lingua franca core will affect the mutual understanding in communication, they can be taught and can be learned, and they can be used as the focus of phonetic teaching content for international English learners. The characteristics include: excepting fricative pronunciation and fuzzy pronunciation of tongue side, pronunciation of all consonants should be clear; consonant plexus can be simplified in a word; vowel quantity is important than vowel quality, and so on. For vowel sound quality, word stress, rhythm, voice changes and other elements which can not be taught easily, learners are only required to understand in the phonetic level (Jenkins, 2002).
4.0 Critical analysis 批评性分析
4.1 Advantages and disadvantages of traditional model
The main advantage of traditional phonetic teaching model is that, first of all, there are mature and clear teaching materials and standards to facilitate the teachers and students to comply in the teaching and learning process. Second, at present, pronunciation taught by traditional phonetic teaching model is accepted by the majority of countries and English users, master the British or American standard pronunciation can be fluent in English communication in the global context (Tokumoto and Shibata, 2011. There are many shortcomings in traditional phonetic teaching model, first, Varonis and Gass (1982) required to fully take the British standard for phonetic teaching, which leads to a large number of demands for English native teachers, and some of English native speakers who fail to accept professional training can also be employed, which is not conducive to local teaching work (Tokumoto and Shibata, 2011). Second, teaching in accordance with the English native language standards, making it difficult for local teachers to teach in accordance with the English mother tongue standards, they will feel depression in teaching, if even the local teachers can not fully qualified for English phonetic teaching, neither can the students. This will make the students have frustrated feeling and weaken their motivation of English learning (Tokumoto and Shibata, 2011). Finally, there are many regional variations in the English pronunciation of the inner circle countries. In the case of the United Kingdom, people using received pronunciation takes only 3% to 5% of the total population, Scotland English, Welsh English and other accents coexist, which means that foreign students need to understand what the remaining 95% - 97% of the British people say, which is difficulty (Jiang and Du, 2003). And universities of the inner circle countries also recruit teachers from the outer circle, and pronunciation of some of the English teachers from the inner circles countries is not entirely in line with the British English phonetic standards.
4.2 Advantages and disadvantages of localized model
Advantages of localized model lies in that it is conducive to play the roles of advantages of local teachers and enhance the teachers’ self-esteem and self-confidence, similar language, acquisition experience and bilingual background makes the teachers better understand the students' learning difficulties, thus they can provide more professional guidance. The students take local teachers as an example, they know that as long as they make effort, they will be able to achieve the phonetic objectives provided by the model (Kirkpatrick, 2007).