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PEST分析法 literature review Research Proposal参考文献格式 case study presentation report格式 Summary范文


时间:2018-03-23 16:43来源:钱柜777官网作者:cinq 点击:
国外大学的论文格式与国内存在很大差异,其中就包括引用参考文献格式,国外大学的Reference格式繁多,其中APA格式就是较为常见的类型之一,通常对于字数超过2页的essay来说,一般都会对Reference List的格式有一定的要求,这就要求学生掌握规范的APA格式,下面就给各位讲解APA格式

1. Books 著作
1) Book with one author (一位作者的著作)
Reference citation in text (文中夹注)
Rosenthal (1987) has argued that …or … this is significant (Rosenthal, 1987).
If the author’s name is not in the text, include it in the parentheses.
J. Sandemose has discussed this in his biography (2004, pp.522-552).
It is recommended to include the page number (or chapter) in addition to the year when paraphrasing or referring to a passage. This is optional.
In bibliography (参考文献)
Rosenthal, R. (1987). Meta-analytic procedures for social research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Sandemose, J. (2004). Aksel Sandemose: A biography. Oslo: Aschehoug.
2) Book with two to seven authors (2到7位作者的著作)
Reference citation in text (文中夹注)
Beck and Sales (2001) here establish a new theory.
or A new theory is established here (Beck & Sales, 2001).
In all subsequent citations to books with two authors, repeat both names and year.
This is also analysed in terms of theories of aesthetics (Carlsen,Nielsen, & Rasmussen, 2001).
With 3-5 authors, write all names in the first citation. In subsequent citations write only the first author’s surname followed by et al. (et al. = “and others”.) With 6 or more authors,cite only the first author’s surname followed by et al. in allcitations. The year is included in all citations, e.g.(Carlsen et al., 2001).
In bibliography(参考文献)
Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation:Facts, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Carlsen, M. S., Nielsen, K. G., & Rasmussen, K. S. (2001). Deleuze’s philosophy. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum.
All authors’ names (up to 7) are written in the bibliography.
3) Chapter in book with editor (选集中的章节)
Reference citation in text (文中夹注)
There are, as Sleeter (1995) has proven, large variations.
The in-text citation refers to the author of the chapter.
In bibliography (参考文献)
Sleeter, C. E. (1995). Radical structuralist perspectives and learning disabilities. In T. M. Skrtic (Ed.), Disability and democracy: Reconstructing(special) education for post modernity (pp. 153-165). New York : Teachers College.
Chapter author and chapter title are written first, then the editor(s),book title (in italics), and chapter page numbers (in parentheses).The reference to the book begins with “In”.
2. Articles 论文
1) Article with one author (一位作者的论文)
Reference citation in text (文中夹注)
From printed journal without DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
According to Friscolanti, we are entering “a new age of hybrid tanks… and biogenerators that transform trash into power” (2009, p. 35).
Write … in a quote if words are excluded. Write the page number of the quote.
From online journal without DOI:
Skull fractures caused by golf balls can inflict brain damage in young children (Steinbok, 2008).
From journal (printed or online) with DOI:
Since 1970 the number of children who have received the diagnosis autism has tripled(Safran, 2008, p. 92). “The term autism has undergone a complete transformation since the 1940’s” writes psychologist S. P. Safran (ibid., p.90).
When there are several citations to the same source,“ibid.” can be used. Include the page number of the quote.
In bibliography (参考文献)
From printed journal without DOI(Digital Object Identifier):
Friscolanti, M. (2009). Lean, green war machine. Maclean’s, 121(51),35-36.
The title of the journal (not the article) is in italics. Volume in italics. Issue in parentheses, and not in italics. Write page number(s) for the entire article.
From online journal without DOI:
Steinbok, P. (2008). Operative management of growing skull fractures. Child’s Nervous System, 24(5), 605-607. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com
Write complete URL if content is freely available (open access).Write URL of the journal’s home page if available by subscription (this example).
From journal (printed or online) with DOI:
Safran, S. P. (2008). Why youngsters with autistic spectrum disorders remain underrepresented in special education.
Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 90- 95. doi:10.1177/0741932507311637
Do not write the name of the database or URL because the DOI is a specific identifier and link to content when written in the address line of a browser or in a doiresolver.
2) Article with several authors  有多位作者的论文
Reference citation in text (文中夹注)
Articles with two authors: 有两位作者的论文
Write both names in all citations.
The study shows that men do more housework after they become fathers (Deutsch, Lussier, & Servis, 1993, p. 116).
Articles with 3-5 authors: 有3-5位作者的论文
Write all names in the first citation. In the next citation to the same article, name only the first author followed by et al. and year. Page number is optional, but recommended.
Articles with more than five authors: 有五位以上作者的论文
Write only the first author followed by et al. and the year, for all citations.
In bibliography (参考文献)
The title of the journal (not the article) in italics.
Deutsch, F. M., Lussier, J. B., & Servis, L. J. (1993).Husbands at home. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 115- 117.
For articles with up to six authors, write all names. For articles with seven or more authors, write the first six names followed by … and then the last author’s name.  (This example shows an article from a printed journal without DOI.)
3) Newspaper article 报纸文章
Reference citation in text (文中夹注)
Printed newspaper: 出版的报纸
Obesity has a direct correlation, not only to heart disease and cancer, but also to poverty (Schwartz, 2005).
Online newspaper: 网络报纸
The economic crisis in the USA strengthens Obama’s chances of winning the presidential election (Nagourney & Bumiller, 2008).
In bibliography (参考文献)
newspaper: 出版的报纸
Schwartz, J. (2005, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4-A5.
If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma.
Online newspaper:网络报纸
Nagourney, A., & Bumiller, E. (2008, September 25). McCainleaps into a thicket. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

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