The ability of dealing with unexpected and sudden events that disturbs communities and changes in organization culture is known as crisis management. In recent years we have been able to palpate transboundary crisis, that have affected stakeholders in multiple forms. For example, the 2011 tsunami of Japan, which interrupted supply chain all over the world, especially in the automotive industry (Crandall, Parnell & Spillan, 2010).
This art of dealing with crisis requires skills and knowledge to organize stakeholders’ recovery. Crisis management prepares the person to develop skills in an unexpected and adverse circumstances within the organization of an emergency response with courage and determination. The coordination of the emergency responses to a broader incident that threatens to harm and destroy structures, ability to operate effectively and efficiently. The continuum evaluation of the planning and automatic incident response becomes a major part of the process in a crisis management plan.
Organizational resources available in a crisis in Dominican Republic.
According to Crandall, Parnell & Spillan (2014) there are countries and cultures that are known as “crises-prepared”, because they have been able to train and support any crisis planning to overcome their weakness. The Dominican Republic is not the exception, when a crisis arises the community and Dominican Civil Defense are the first to respond to the emergency, as first responders. Nevertheless, not everyone is prepared to assist another person or assume a role of leadership in the process of an emergency crisis.
The national emergency and communication system, known as the Center for Emergencies Operation, [COE], in its role of the leading agency nationwide in a crisis, and responding organization has been able to develop competence and abilities to assist potential crises and manage the ones that eventually occur. The Center for Emergencies Operation, [COE], is entitled to develop, review, implement and train personnel, volunteers and the community in reference to the national plan and management for emergencies nationwide. The Dominican Civil Defense, are the first responder to the scene of a natural disaster or crisis. This is one of the emergency groups, at least, most known in the country as trained first responders to any type of emergency. The Dominican Civil Defense began their community services as a group of volunteers to the community by providing communication services as radio amateur by 1963.
Their first official support to the community was with Hurricane Flora, where they proved how they were effective in providing communication nationwide under an emergency disaster as a hurricane. The Dominican Red Cross allowed them to station their central communication within their center. By, 1966, the Dominican government enacted the Law 257, which created the Dominican Civil Defense as an official organism to assist emergencies. Therefore, becoming an official state institution under the umbrella of the Center of Emergencies Operation, COE.
In September 22, 2002, the government enacted the Law 147-02 by which the risk management, became the official emergency governmental Agency in charge of developing the national emergency and communication plan along with its regulations. As general principles they abide by to protect, coordinate, participate, teach prevention and decentralize services. Their primary goal is to prevent or reduce loss of lives and minimize property damages of civilians and government from natural disasters or manmade disasters.
The Dominican Civil Defense, is one the organisms under the umbrella of COE, as well as the Dominican Red Cross, Energy Conservation Department, Fire Department, Police Department, Dominican Port Authority, Health Department, Environment and Natural Resources Department, Dominican Seismological Institute, National Housing Department, among others, have been recognized as an emergency crisis team of technicians and professionals local, national and internationally for its work team on behalf of those in need and the community.
In the case of the Dominican Civil Defense, their manpower is composed of 95% of constant trained volunteers, an executive director, an officer corps, and departmental managers who, according to their academic preparation begin working for the community and the benefit of the country. According to Treurniet, Van Buul-Besseling & Wolbers (2012) the community may be defined as a group of people living in the same area and having a particular characteristics in common of being a human being. And as such, they will belong to different groups and communities, sharing their understanding of a true active community work, towards each other.
By 2014, the Dominican Republic implemented for the first time in its history the services of 911. As one of the new emergency resource services center, its authorities in charge felt the need to educate massively the population about the use and benefits of 911. The communication strategy was massively used (television and radio) during the following two months prior to the activation of the 911 system nationwide.
Pearson & Mitroff (1993) expressed that there is a need of collaborating with the community, because it provides a sense of being part active within the community. Furthermore, they explained that the community can share their expectations, assessing their needs and goals of those who are needing assistance. In times of crisis, the knowledge of collaborating formally or informally with organizations in reaching one goal of helping out another person becomes a resilient behavior (James & Gilliland, 2013).
In the Dominican Republic, Center for Emergency and Communication Operations, [COE] would be similar in its function to what FEMA is in the United States. The Dominican Civil Defense is allocated under the umbrella of the COE. This Center would be part integral of the Crisis Management Team, CMT and the Crisis Management Plan, CMP. COE coordinates constant trainings with national and international agencies who are also dealing with emergencies and crisis in order to exchange experiences and train with new techniques.
Today, the Dominican Civil Defense has become one of the institutions of the Government that has one of the best communication networks in the country after the Armed Forces. They have a communication system in the UHF band or ''ultra-high frequency" recently installed, and a fleet system is national in scope, in addition to conventional phones. Currently, the Dominican Civil Defense has a radio station, which is the soul of the institution in crisis and emergencies that operate 24 hours a day and the 365 days of the year (Dominican Civil Defense, 2014).
Crisis Theories. 危机理论
Theories make several assumptions in order to provide an explanation of a given situation. Several authors, such as James & Gilliland (2013) explains that the Eclectic Crisis Intervention Theory entails an intentional and systematic selectively integrated valid concepts and strategies to help the victims from different approaches. This particular theory begins working as a task-oriented theory, instead of using concepts. Several major tasks identified in this theory are:
Identify elements in all systems and to integrate them into an internally consistent whole providing a more accurate behavioral data to be explained.
Consider all existent theories, methods, and standards for evaluating and manipulating clinical data according to the advanced knowledge of time and place.
The need to identify with no specific theory, with an open mind and continuously experiment with those formulations and strategies that produce successful results.
This particular theory integrates two pervasive themes. The first of those theme is that people and all crises are unique and distinctive, therefore can apply to anyone and any type of culture. Secondly, all people and all crises are similar. Hence, James & Gilliland (2013) understands that these assumptions are seen as mutually exclusive.
The eclectic approach, according to James & Gilliland (2013) provide an opportunity to a number of approaches and theories, subsequently, it allows the opportunity of being able to assess the victim’s needs in order to apply and plan the appropriate techniques tailored to the person. The therapist, on the other hand, will be taking risks and will have the willingness to switch an approach to another technique even if the first had function.
However, the Interpersonal theory in essence explains that people can not sustain a personal state of a crisis for very long, if they really believe in themselves and in others. Having confidence, the person will become self-actualized and overcome the crisis (James & Gilliland, 2013).