An organization is comprised of a large set of individuals, working together to attain a specified common goal. The concrete organisational framework is based upon specified values and positive culture escorted by charismatic leaders that are required to comprehend their roles and responsibilities towards both the employees and the organisation. A positive work environment is comprised of intellectual and enigmatic leaders that believe in empowering employees and appreciate their active participation in the progression of the company (Balain, and Sparrow 2009, p. 227). The concept of leadership is generated to monitor the behavioural patterns of employees including and motivate them to enhance their loyalty towards the organisation. The behavioural patterns of employees greatly vary depending upon their individual circumstances and therefore, it is extremely crucial for the leaders to develop an empathetic approach towards resolving the issues of employees and to inspire them for effective contribution to achieve the organisational objectives. It is the responsibility of the organisational leaders to develop challenging but achievable goals and boost the team spirit amongst the employees to achieve maximum organisational productivity (Knight, Durham and Locke 2001, p. 329). There could be diverse range of motivational factors that might influence an individual's conviction and the effective leaders have the ability to single out those factors to persuade the employees to enhance organisational growth and maximise its productivity (Choi 2006, p. 26). This paper is intended to analyse the role of leadership and employee motivation in long term organisational success by critical evaluation of the theoretical underpinnings of the subject. The idea is to reflect the behavioural patterns of both the leaders and employees by recognizing the need for employee motivation and understanding the role of leaders to optimistically incite the employees in the best interest of the organisation (Knight, Durham and Locke 2001, p. 335). The main objective of this paper is to explicate the functional features of an organisation in which the role of leadership becomes extremely significant in order to develop smart employee motivational strategies to ensure their satisfaction and thereby, producing constructive employee's attitudes to preserve long term organisational success.
ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN ORGANISATIONAL SUCCESS 领导在组织成功中的作用
Routine official work environment has several challenges and issues which are required to be sorted with sheer intelligence and determination. Organisational structure is extremely complex including diverse nature of employees and therefore, the role of leader becomes extremely significant to maintain a positive and constructive workplace (Hamlin 2002). The most integral aspect of a leader's personality is the understanding towards responsibilities and willingness to combat with difficulties and challenges. Not all managers can become effective leaders (Knight, Durham and Locke 2001, p. 335) as the complex organisational structure and diversity of employees makes it difficult to realize the dynamics of key motivating factors that facilitate in enhanced organisational productivity. The globalised work environment of today is comprised of organisations having employees coming from different backgrounds, speaking diversified languages and competent in varying range of skills and therefore, leaders today, are not just required to focus on task accomplishment but must also address the employee's expectations by engaging them as effectively contributing member of the organisation. Employees look upon their organisational leaders as a coach who enables them to understand and perform their task in correct manner (Hamlin 2002). Employees expect their leaders to effectively communicate and direct them to prevail over the work-related issues and obstacles by motivational skills. The concept of leadership is based upon the combination of personality, ideologies, intellect, motivation and trust (Balain, and Sparrow 2009, p. 228). Organisations endeavour fiscal growth and productivity which can be achieved by progressive employees followed by a charismatic leader. It is significant for the organisational leaders to recruit maximum number of followers and for that, leaders through their personal charm, ideologies and intellect gain trust of employees and motivate them to accomplish organisational goals (Kaplan and Norton 2004, p. 37). Long term organisational success is highly dependent upon leadership and employee motivation. It has been studied that, in order to achieve long-term organisational success, leaders are required to gain trust of employees and motivate them (Baldoni, 2005, p. 175). The distinct qualities encompassing excellence in performance and management skills ascertain the organisational leaders. The ability to envision, empathise, and empower are the three core components that determine the charismatic attribute of a leader. Envisioning behaviour of a leader influences other organisational members by stimulating a need to accomplish and the empathic behaviour facilitate the followers to gel with their leader based on ideological affiliations (Choi, 2006, p. 41).
ANALYISING THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 领导理论的分析
Leaders are the symbol of ideologies that are followed by others and organisations acquire tremendous growth and success by integrating charismatic leadership within their work environment. Interaction of leaders with the followers tends to develop a positive and highly motivated work environment which eventually results in the organisational success (Pratti et al, 2003, p. 27). The six most integral leadership theories have been critically analysed to understand the reasons behind advanced performance levels which enhances the economic and organisational strength.
Great Man Theory
The theoretical model of Great Man theory was based on a belief that the leadership is confine only to the aristocratic people that are destined to escort the rest. Formerly the people belonging to upper-class were treated differently and were looked upon by others due to specific qualities they posses or the exceptional standard of living they enjoyed. It was believed that only a limited number of people were uniquely gifted with certain abilities and traits that made it possible for them to become leaders and the rest are meant to follow them (Pratti et al, 2003, p. 32). The most critical element of the Great Man theory was the blind conviction in the leadership of aristocratic people and firmly believing that the traits of leadership can never be inherited, developed, learnt, or acquired (Baldoni, 2005, p. 179), which limited the scope of leadership. The term 'Great Man' itself has a limited scope as the theoretical model is primarily male, military and west oriented. While analysing the phenomenon of intrinsic supremacy of the Great Man theory, it is indeed true that there are certain men possessing some congenital power to influence over their contemporaries, substantiating their right to leadership however, the concept of limiting the headship to a group of aristocratic is inequitable (Choi 2006, p. 42). If the Great Man model is applied to the contemporary organisational structure, it might produce unconstructive outcomes as the diversification of employee's background, languages, skills and individual circumstance has given rise to a much perplexed work environment where aristocratic aspect of Great Man theory would develop pessimism amongst employees. The globalised nature of work environment has developed a breed of employees that are much more aware, educated, skilful and competent (Hamlin 2002). Employees today do not necessarily be content with handsome remuneration package instead they look forward to professional growth and enhanced opportunities. The Great Man theoretical model does not address the prospects and expectations of existing organisational workforce as it is confined to offer leadership opportunities to aristocratic group of people only. Followed by the Great Man theoretical model which advocates the innate superiority, the exceptional traits, qualities and attributes of the leaders were explored and as a result of which Trait Theory was developed.
The Trait Theories were developed with a purpose of determining the core characteristics of leaders that contributed towards organisational success. The theory was put forward with intent to facilitate the organisations in the identification of key traits, qualities and attributes of leaders so that the correct set of people can be recruited and installed into leadership positions of the organisation. There are a number of leadership traits identified by several studies including adaptability, decisiveness, cooperation, dependability, assertiveness, determination, self confidence (Wheatley 2001, p. 92) however, it has been observed that there is no quantifiable means to identify leadership characteristics and there are no consistent set of qualities that might support the concept of a true leader (Baldoni, 2005, p. 212). Human beings have numerous positive and negative traits that are responsible in shaping up the overall personality of an individual. All leaders posses the universal quality to influence others however, the set of fundamental traits that enables them to dominate over their contemporaries might considerably differ (Pratti et al, 2003, p. 37). It has been studied that the generic qualities of a leader such as charismatic personality, sociability and intelligence are not limited to themselves only instead the most commonly held traits of leaders can also be shared by diverse group of people which do not necessarily become leaders. On the other hand, generic traits of the leaders might be similar however, the absence of some of these generic traits do not make them any less leader. There has been somewhat consistency in the generic traits of leaders that may include administrative skills, decisiveness, responsiveness and astuteness which enables them to ensure enhanced organisational productivity. It has been argued that there is the probability of prominent leaders being gifted by few common traits nevertheless; it is nearly impracticable that all leaders pose a collective set of characteristics (Pratti et al, 2003, p. 39) and hence, the Trait Theory failed to sustain its momentum. It is significant to note that, neither the authoritative traits corroborate the position of a leader and nor the position of leadership can be acquired by the identified authoritative characteristics (Gosling and Mintzberg 2003).