Purpose – Literature has studied the variables of organization culture and managerial characteristics separately in various dimensions. This study investigates the effects of organizational culture and managerial characteristic on the tradeoff between organizational sincerity and work performance for promotion.
Design/methodology/approach – The data was collected using self-administered questionnaire, from managers of different departments. The final sample size was 250 managers.
Findings – The result showed that there is a positive relation between organizational culture, work performance, and organizational sincerity. A positive association also exists between managers education level and work performance given that the gender is male.
Research limitations/implications – Few limitations would be the shortage of time and resources. In future studies other managerial characteristics should also be examined.
Practical implications – In this era of immense competition, companies may ask themselves what to criteria to choose while promoting employees. Result shows that there is a positive relation between organization’s culture, work performance, and organizational sincerity.
Originality/value – The most interesting and significant finding is that there is a positive relation between organizational culture, work performance, and organizational sincerity. Accordingly the stronger the culture of the organization the better work performers and sincere employees it has.
Keywords Organizational culture, Managerial characteristics, Work Performance, Sincerity
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 简介
It has been argued that loyal and sincere employees are very important for success of organizations (Jaunch, Glueck, & Osborn, 1978). It is said that coherent and carefully developed corporate values play an important role, in making employees, loyal to organizations (Smith & Rupp, 2002).
Work performance has been studied in different dimensions. Earlier the study of work performance was limited only to job satisfaction (Martin & Shore, 1978). Ovadje, Obinna and Muogboh (2009) also studied the relation between job satisfaction and individual performance, according to their study the relationship between the two was high and consistent. Jaunch, Glueck and Osborn (1978) have argued that loyalty has no relationship with work efficiency. They used five point scales to measure organizational sincerity, commitment and productivity. Avolio, Waldman, and McDaniel (1990) studied the effect of age and experience on work performance and concluded that experience is a better predictor of performance than age.
It is argued that health of organizations depends upon health of employees, if employees are healthy they will perform better and organizations will grow (Baptiste, 2008).
Paswan,Pelton and True (2005) studied perception of managerial sincerity in context of motivation and job satisfaction, they concluded that loyalty of employees is very important in getting good feedback as they are employees are more interactive and motivated. The relationship between employees and organization depends upon how they perceive the organization (Martin & Shore, 1989). Baffour (1999) also argues that organizations in which employees are part of decision making perform better than those with centralized decision making. Employee’s loyalty may lead to employees’ satisfaction and productivity or it may result in dissatisfaction and absenteeism (Becker, Billings, Eveleth & Gilbert, 1996). Previously supervisory ratings and questionnaire have been used to measure organizational sincerity and work performance respectively (Jaunch et al, 1978). It is argued that participative management makes employees satisfied (Kim, 2002).
Therefore loyalty and sincerity of employees to organization is considered as an important factor in promotions (Jaunch et al, 1978). It is also said that quality has relationship with satisfaction (Ilias, Rahman & Razak, 2008).
Barney (1986) argued that that firms which do not have the required cultures cannot sustain optimal financial performance because their respective cultures are neither rare nor difficult to imitate.
Weick (1987) also argued that organizations whose cultures value reliability more than efficiency often face unique problems in learning and understanding, which could affect the performance of the organization.
It is argued that top management involvement is very essential to handle strategic change efficiently and effectively (Boecker, 1997). Gupta and Govindarajan (1984) also argued that tolerance of mangers contribute positively make business unit more efficient
Although work performance is studied by different researchers in different dimensions, but no one has tried to link organizational sincerity to work performance. This study aims to identify the interrelation of work performance and organizational sincerity. Today in the world of immense competition both traits of sincerity and hard working in an employee is hard to find. Through this study we want to find whether a manager will prefer an employee who is hard worker or an employee who is sincere towards his organization.
To study the effects of managerial characteristics and organizational culture on managers trade-off between organizational sincerity and work performance for employee promotion.
Proposed Research Hypotheses
H1: There is a relationship between managerial characteristics and promotion
criterion due to organizational sincerity.
H2: There is a relationship between managerial characteristics and promotion
criterion due to work performance.
H3: There is a relationship between organizational culture and promotion
criterion due to organizational sincerity.
H4 : There is a relationship between organizational culture and promotion
criterion due to work performance.
H5: There is a relationship between managers’ education and work
performance due to male gender.
H6: There is a relationship between managers’ education and work
performance due to female gender.
Outline of the Study
Chapter one includes the an overview of variables, problem statement that shows the possible relationship between managerial characteristics, work performance and impact of both on promotion criterion and six proposed research hypotheses with a brief outline of the study. Chapter two includes the literature review. In this chapter organizational culture, organizational sincerity and work performance are explained. Chapter three is comprised of method of data collection which is personal survey, sampling technique which is non-probability convenient sampling ,size which is two hundred and fifty, instrument of data collection, research model developed which supports the problem statement and statistical technique which is correlation. Chapter four includes the results which show the relationships between variables. Lastly Chapter five includes conclusion, discussions, implications and possible future researches.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 文献综述
The labor markets are becoming competitive day by day and it is very rare to find an employee that performs efficiently and whose goals are compatible with those of organizations. Therefore, most of times managers have to choose between a loyal employee and an efficient employee. Several factors influence this phenomenon.
It has been argued that there are considerable differences in the attitudes of managers as well as employees in the geographically and historically similar countries. These differences have been found across such variables as control, supervision, commitment, and decision type and leadership style. It was further revealed that these differences in the attitudes of managers and employees was associated with their respective country’s position on the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions.(Mockaitis, 2005).
Glinow, Huo and Lowe argued that despite numerous researches conducted on International Management styles, the studies have still failed to illustrate how ideal leadership or management style is affected by the specific cultural characteristics in different countries. They argued that although multinational firms should maintain some form of consistency in terms of management style, yet the management style used overseas (in different cultures) should be enfused with the local culture to maintain acceptability within the cultural context.