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钱柜娱乐777:钱柜777:产品生命周期理论在国际商务中的应用

时间:2018-02-26 08:57来源:钱柜777官网作者:cinq 点击:
本文是留学生assignment范文,主要内容是通过研究国际贸易理论这本书,分析产品生命周期理论在国际商务中的应用。
国际贸易理论。这是一本2006年由Klug Adam和Warren Young主编。这本书涉及国际贸易的各个主题,包括国际收支、宏观经济学、政治学、国际关系、贸易和关税以及历史和理论等商业和经济问题。这本书所载的信息在研究国际贸易时是非常足智多谋的,因为它是通过以色列经济史学家对国际贸易的不同理论进行广泛调查得出的。
在这本书中的一些理论米尔泰德斯国际贸易包括古典、新古典以及特别要注意的问题的现代理论,福利和增长。除此之外,国际贸易领域的主要贡献者所做的主要工作也包括在这本书中。FR实例贡献的学者如赫克歇尔、俄林、李嘉图和密尔通过Meade约翰逊增长模型、Uzawa和索洛。在这本书中的问题是满足清晰简便、正在寻求的解决方案在每一种情况下,后进研究低水平的学生在提交讨论了几个章节以及附录可以省略,而不必中断与书上的连续性的技术问题。
 
Klug, Adam, 2006. Theories of International Trade. Routledge. This is a book from 2006 by Klug Adam and edited by Warren Young, Michael D. Bordo and Daniel Schiffman. The book tackles on various subjects of international trade including balance of payments, macro economics, political science, international relations, trade and tariffs and on business and economic issues like history and theories. Information contained in the book is very resourceful when studying international trade as it's obtained from a through survey that Israeli economic historian conducted looking extensively on the different theories of international trade.
 
Chacholiades Miltiades. 2006. The pure theory of international trade. New York: Transaction Publishers.
In this book by Miltiades several theories as of international trade including the classical, neoclassical as well as the modern theories with special attention given to the problems, welfare and growth. In addition to that discussions of the major works done by major contributors in the field of international trade are included in this book. Fr instance contributions by scholars like Heckscher, Ohlin, Ricardo and Mill through Meade to the growth models of Johnson, Uzawa and Solow. In this book problems are sated clearly with easy and convenient solution being sought in each case with the technical topics in the filed discussed in several chapters as well as appendices may be omitted fro less advanced studies by lower level students without necessarily interrupting with the continuity of the book.
 
Markusen,R James. 2004. Multinational firms and the theory of international trade. California: MIT Press.
Markusen in his book above on interaction trade despite he obvious importance that multinational firms has in international economics, both theoretical as well as empirical research on such firms has usually been separately conducted especially on international trade. Therefore in this book the author has provided a comprehensive integration of both field and it has achieved this by drawing on two decades of research focusing on the interaction of scale economies, factor endowments, trade costs and competition. Decisions about whether to acquire or build a foreign plant are analyzed separately from the decisions regarding place of raising the financing.
 
Stark John. 2005. Product lifecycle management: 21st century paradigm for product realization. Birkhäuser.
This book explains the significance of product life cycle management both from the business as well as technical points of views. Explanations given are supported by examples which show how the world class engineering and manufacturing companies successfully implement product life cycle management. This book is very resourceful as it introduces product life cycle management which is a holistic view concerning product development, supports the use as well as the disposal for the industry globally and all these is based on the experience derived from internationally renowned companies. In addition to that the book also shows how one can take full advantage of the product lifecycle management, ways of preparing people to working with product lifecycle environment, ways of making best choices reading personal situations thus help in providing a deeper understanding as well as in the nurturing of skills that are needed to implement product cycle management successfully promoting achievement of a world class product development as well as support performance. Finally the book also gives access to companion websites that contain further material reading the topic.
 
Electronic databases
Rubera Gaia, Griffith David & Ordanin Andrea. 2011. Incorporating cultural values for understanding the influence of perceived product creativity on intention to buy: An examination in Italy and the US. Journal of business studies. March 2011. Vol 1 no 1
This paper was written in response to the increasing competition globally changing the market place in which new products are introduced to. Therefore the paper helps in extending the knowledge on the effects of a perceived product thus contributing to study literature through empirical investigation of the influence of cultural values on relationships between creativity dimensions of meaningfulness, novelty and intentions of buying process. The paper utilizes the schmaltz values framenwork in theorizing the cultural differences. This paper involves use of results obtained from a case study done between 206 Italian and 201 United States based consumers.
 
Hofstede Geert, Cultural dimensions in management and planning. Asia pacific journal of management, Vol 1 No.2 pg 81-99.
 
Management skills are culturally specific thus management techniques or even philosophy appropriate in one culture does not necessary mean it's appropriate for another. This paper describes extensively scope of work related cultural differences based on research conducted in more than 50 countries around the globe. In addition to that it carries a discursion on how these differences affects validity of management techniques as well as philosophies in various countries that lay within the functioning and the meaning of planning.
 
Hoftede Geert, Asian management in the 21st Century. Asia pacific Journal of management. Vol 24, No 4 pg 411-420.
This paper is inspired by the recent research that reveals that fundamental differences regarding the goals of business leaders from various societies. Result which are contrary to the popular opinion that crucial elements of management process shows a strong continuity over a period of time, with variation from one country to another which is often as a function of the local culture. Therefore this paper explores the general characteristics of Asian management compared to management in other parts of the world focusing on the impacts of the Asian management and its origins of culture on the merging Asian multinationals as well as the state of art in management in the 21st century business world.
 
Reuer Jeffrey Tony W Tong, 18 February 2010. Competitive consequences of interfirm collaboration: How joint ventures shape industry profitability. Journal of International Business Studies 41, 1056-1073.
Based on contrasting results obtained from recent research on international business regarding he use of knowledge of joint venture in increasing through competitiveness and the research on industrialization organization economic which reveal that joint venture can also be use in various ways to attenuate completion ,this article therefore joints the two streams of research on reducing or enhancing competition through empirical testing of the effects of various types of venture on the organization profitability. Thus this paper yield results reading the above issues and also shows the importance of adopting contingent approaches in evaluation of competitive implications of various joint ventures. Finally the paper also addresses on the values of reinvigorating international business research con competitive context as well as consequences of interim collaborations.
 
Rink Davi, 12th April 2002. Product Life cycle Research: A literature Review. Journal of Business Research Vol.7 no 3 pg 219-242
This paper contains resourceful information on the various issues .first is the review of the scope of product life cycle research, areas that require further research and finally provide guideline to be used by future researchers. This paper offer tentative conclusions which are advanced as compared to empirical evidence due to its paucity. For instance it conclude that the most common product life cycle used is the classical bell-shaped. It also has result on the success of the application of product life cycle which it finds that it has been met with quite some success. The paper also has information on the least researched areas which include the effects of different characteristics of the firm on product life cycle and the actual utilization of product life cycle strategy theories among the business planners. Finally the paper has extensive literature on validation of the existing product life cycle concept among the nondurable consumer goods leading to the conclusion that a research that is more diversified as well as extensive should be conducted in the future.
 
Items public on the Internet
Mullor-Sebastian Alicia. Winter 1983.The product life cycle theory: empirical evidence. Journal of international studies retrievable from: http://www.jstor.org/pss/154692
This article presents resourceful information based on three empirical test of the product cycle theory which is based on information obtained from United States data which is relatively new hence giving information on larger number of products as well as lower levels of aggregation as compared to data used in the earlier tests. The papers also provide information regarding the behavior of industrial products behavior in relation to the theory product cycle theory on world markets. in addition to that it provide result on the behavior of the individual products based on the theory. Finally the paper offer policy implications concerning the reliance of development strategies in industrial sectors rather than on individual commodities.


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