Employees are organizations, "best asset" as stated in American Psychological Association, 2006. The businesses of today's market emphasize on how to motivate subordinates in order to create productive and high-quality work environment. The case study states different methods to advance staff motivation for the satisfaction and increase in work performance of changing work environment. In Part A, the study involves the application of Herzberg's Two-Factor theory, Locke's Goal-Setting theory and Job design theory in a telecommunication firm called O2. O2 is a leading provider of mobile and broadband services to consumers and businesses in the UK
To understand the theories of work motivation, the case study interprets the structured interview of an O2 sales advisor. After analysing the interview; suggestions were made to enhance the sale advisor's work motivation.
In Part B, there is a discussion on identifying the national culture differences and compare whether they would be effective for the Indian working environment from that of Part A. The theories are compared to a sales advisor of an Indian telecommunication industry named Airtel. According to Konsik et al (2007), Airtel is India's largest telecom industry.
JOB DESCRIPTION 职位描述
The sales advisor at O2 in the UK is responsible for the promotion of the company's products and its brand to potential customers, including solving their problems and tackling their complaints. The job role is designed to meet the targets and the person should possess good communication skills and should be confident (Randstad, 2010). The daily duty for the position is consisted of client reception, product and service introduction, selling phones and business contracts signing.
THEORIES TO INCREASE WORK MOTIVATION 提高工作动机的理论
In order to understand more about the job role, we interviewed Mr Ademola Abimbola who presently works as a sales advisor in O2 (see appendix exhibit 1). From the interviews, it can be seen that numerous methods of improving work motivation has been applied in O2, yet there is a possibility to increase it by using Goal-Setting theory and Herzberg's two-factor to enhance performance and satisfactory need. In this part the three theories will be analyzed and evaluated.
Creating a good working environment internally and externally is essential for a personnel. From the interview, it appears that the environment for O2's workplace is likely to be improved by adopting Herzberg two-factor theory. This theory was proposed by Frederick Herzberg in 1959, who introduced five motivators, such as achievement and recognition, to contribute people toward satisfaction and another five 'hygiene factors' containing company policy, supervision and other elements, associated with people's unsatisfactory in their jobs (Robbins and Judge, 2001, pp.212-214). It is suggested that businesses should use intrinsic motivators to increase subordinates' satisfaction that improves extrinsic working conditions not to make people dissatisfied. Nevertheless, it seems that job satisfaction does not contribute to job productivity; but the theory assumes that there is a relationship between job satisfaction and productivity (Robbins and Judge, 2001, p214).
JOB CHARACTERISTIC MODEL 工作特性模型
Mr. Abimbola is given responsibility and autonomy to some extent, yet 'job characteristics model' (JCM) may make him reach a higher level and thus Job Design will be introduced. Hackman and Oldham's JCM is based on 'job enlargement' and 'job enrichment' to address five core dimensions - 'skill variety', 'task identify', 'task significance', 'autonomy' and 'feedback' - to lead to favourable work motivation, performance, satisfaction and low absenteeism and turnover by cultivating experienced meaningfulness, responsibility and knowledge of results (Grant and Parker, 2009, p.320). Accordingly, this model can be introduced to improve satisfaction and performance. Whereas it seems powerful among work design theories, there are critique and limitations. Aldag, Barr and Brief (1981) argued that relationship between job characteristics and work outcomes was not strong. Furthermore, one paper addressed that the model did not obviously lead to job satisfaction when the employee concerned more about welfare (Robbins and Judge, 2001, p.271).
GOAL SETTING 目标设置
Goal Setting is an effective method to lead a positive effect over a period of time (Tolchinsky and King, 1980, p.455). Goal Setting is introduced to motivate employees at O2. According to Locke and Latham's Goal Setting theory (1990), staff setting is clear and difficult goal will improve higher performance than staff setting their own goals (McCracken and Brown, 2010, p29). When employees are assigned to their targets, their behaviour towards it depends on the degree of their conscious acceptance (Yukl and Latham, 1975, p.824). Therefore, the theory concludes that personnel performs better in the job when they receive feedbacks (Judge and Robbins, 2001, p.220) and suggests commitment to goals. However, there is criticism of this theory that it might be effective for simple jobs with few goals than a managerial job with many tasks; particularly when the tasks were difficult to be measured (Yukl and Latham, 1975, p.842). Moreover, another study argued the effectiveness of Goal-Setting that might be from different culture; but it may be effective for cultures with low power distance but not workable for countries with high uncertainty avoidance (Judge and Robbins, 2001, p.220). In addition, satisfaction, turnover and absenteeism are not stated in the theory; which is another limitation. Goal setting has many limitations while it may be one of the most influential theories of motivation. Only few studies dispute that setting a specific and difficult goal contributes to higher productivity (Judge and Robbins, 2001, p.236).
CHOICE OF PREFFERED CHANGES 优先选择的变化
HERZBERG'S THEORY OF MOTIVATION 赫茨伯格的动机理论
Frederick Herzberg conducted various studies on the working environment of employees and factors leading to their satisfaction and dissatisfaction. With the help of these studies, he found out that factors that were causing job satisfaction were not the same as the factors causing job dissatisfaction. He termed the factors causing satisfaction as 'motivators' and the factors causing dissatisfaction as 'hygiene factors'.
Motivators include factors such as growth, achievement, recognition, advancement, work itself and responsibility. Hygiene factors include supervision, company policy, salary, work conditions and internal relationships shared with employees (Robbins and Judge, 2009, p.212)
It is essential for every organisation to satisfy both; the psychological and physiological needs of an employee. Psychological needs are connected to the emotions of an employee that are important to succeed and achieve the goals. These needs motivate an employee to grow in the organisation. Physiological needs are the materialistic needs of an employee. They can be fulfilled by providing material benefits.
After conducting interviews (see exhibit 1), it is observed that the working environment of O2 includes various forms of 'motivators' as well as 'hygiene factor'. At O2 the psychological needs of an employee are satisfying, as the working environment is very informal and friendly. The employees have a direct communication at their workplace. O2 provides employment opportunities by introducing them to numerous people thereby increasing their networks. This is one of the utmost motivating factors for an employee.
On the other hand, O2 is unable to fully satisfy the physiological needs of an employee. According to the structured interview (Exhibit 1), Mr. Abimbola claims that there are various benefits provided to him such as 25% discount on handsets, vouchers for retail stores such as River Island and Top man, pension schemes, eye test, 28 days annual leave and various other benefits for friends and family. However, he is not satisfied with these perks and tends to compare them with the benefits provided by other organisations. They look up to organisations like Virgin, which provides a lot of additional benefits such as good commissions and free holidays.
GOAL SETTING THEORY 目标设定理论
Setting specific goals and targets give a direction to the work achieved by an employee. O2 provide Mr Abimbola an estimate of the task that he is expected to achieve. Once he is committed to the goal, he makes sure to achieve it. Thereby it can be said that goals are a great source of motivation for an employee. Moreover, setting difficult goals make an employee put in a 100% effort and results in better performance and higher productivity (Robbins and Judge, 2009, p.219).